Venus is that the second planet from the Sun and therefore the third brightest object in Earth’s sky after the Sun and Moon. it’s sometimes mentioned because the sister planet to Earth, because their size and mass are so similar. Venus is additionally the closest planet to Earth. The surface of Venus is hidden by an opaque layer of clouds which are formed from vitriol .
The planet is known as for Venus, the Roman goddess of affection and wonder and is that the second largest planet.
Venus is the second brightest natural object in the sky. The planet has an apparent magnitude of -3.8 to -4.6, which makes it visible on a bright, clear day. The Moon is the only other natural object that is brighter.
Venus is sometimes referred to as the “morning star” and “evening star”. This dates back to ancient civilizations who believed that Venus was in fact two distinct stars appearing in the sky. When the orbit of Venus overtakes Earth’s orbit, it changes from being visible at sunrise to being visible at sunset. They were known as Phosphorus and Hesperus by the Greeks, and Lucifer and Vesper by the Romans.
One day on Venus is longer than one year. Due to the slow rotation on its axis, it takes 243 Earth-days to complete one rotation. The orbit of the planet takes 225 Earth-days – making a year on Venus shorter on day on Venus.
Venus is named after the Roman goddess of love and beauty. This may be, in part, due the brightness of the planet and may date back to the Babylonians in 1581 who referred to Venus as “bright queen of the sky”.
Venus is sometimes called Earth’s sister planet. This is because their size is very similar (there is only a 638 km different in diameter) and Venus has around 81% of Earth’s mass. They are also similarly located with Venus being the closest planet to Earth. Both planets also have a central core, a molten mantle and a crust.
Venus has no moons nor rings.
Billions of years ago, the climate of Venus may been similar to that of Earth and scientists believe that Venus once possessed large amounts of water or oceans. However, due to the high temperatures produce from the extreme greenhouse effect, this water boiled off long ago and the surface of the planet is now too hot and hostile to sustain life.
Venus rotate in the opposite direction to other planets. Most other planets rotate counter-clockwise on their axis, however Venus, like Uranus, rotates clockwise. This is known as a retrograde rotation and may have been caused by a collision with an asteroid or other object which caused the planet to change its rotational path.
Venus is the hottest planet in the solar system with an average surface temperature of 462°C (863°F). Also, Venus doesn’t tilt on its axis which means there are no seasons either. The atmosphere is a dense 96.5% carbon dioxide which traps heat and caused the greenhouse effect which evaporated any water sources billions of years ago.
The temperature on Venus doesn’t vary much between the night and day. This is due to the slow movement of the solar winds across the surface of the planet.
The estimated age of the Venusian surface is around 300-400 million years old. By comparison, the surface of the Earth is about 100 million years old.
The atmospheric pressure of Venus is 92 times stronger than Earth’s. This means that any small asteroids entering the atmosphere of Venus are crushed by the immense pressure, which is why there are no small surface craters on the planet. This pressure is equivalent to being around 1,000 km under Earth’s oceans.
Venus has a very weak magnetic field. This surprised scientists, who expected Venus to have a magnetic field similar in strength to Earth’s. One possible reason for this is that Venus has no solid inner core, or that its core is not cooling.
Venus is the only planet in the Solar System to be named after a female figure.
Venus orbits the sun in an ellipse, but its orbit is the closest to being a circle out of all the planets in the Solar System.
Venus is the closest planet to Earth. When Venus is in line with Earth and the Sun, it is the closest planet to us, at an average distance of 41 million kilometers (25.5 million miles) away.
More information and Facts about Venus
By the time of the traditional Romans it had been understood that Venus was one among four planets aside from the world . Being the brightest and most visible of those planets, the Romans named Venus after their goddess of affection and wonder . As a results of its name, the earth has naturally been related to love, femininity, and romance throughout history.
It is often remarked that Venus and Earth are twin planets thanks to their similarity in size, density, mass, and volume. Though these planetary characteristics are relatively an equivalent , Venus and Earth are still substantially different in many other ways (atmosphere, rotation, surface temperatures, and Venus’ lacking a moon). If the dual relationship remains, it should be noted that they’re not identical.
As with Mercury, our knowledge of Venus has grown considerably during the latter half the twentieth-century. for instance , before the several planetary missions conducted by NASA and therefore the Soviet Union beginning within the 1960s, scientists had been hopeful that conditions beneath the extremely dense clouds covering the earth would leave life. Unfortunately, the info collected during these missions proved that the conditions present were too severe to support life.
Venus’ atmosphere are often divided into two broad layers. the primary is that the cloud that effectively encases the whole planet. The second is everything below these clouds.
The clouds surrounding Venus extend from 50 to 80 kilometers above the planet’s surface and are composed primarily of sulfur dioxide (SO2) and vitriol (H2SO4). These clouds are so dense that they reflect 60% of the daylight Venus receives back to space.
When studying the sub-cloud atmosphere two features are immediately prominent: density and composition. Furthermore, the effect these two features produce on the earth is profound, making Venus the most well liked and least hospitable of any planet within the system .
Firstly, with an atmospheric density of roughly 480° C. This easily makes Venus’ surface the most well liked of any planet’s within the system .
Due to the thick clouds enshrouding Venus, the small print of its surface can’t be obtained through simple photographic means. Fortunately, scientists are ready to use the tactic of radar mapping to accumulate this information instead. While both photography and radar imaging work by collecting radiation that has bounced off an object, the difference lies within the sorts of radiation collected. Photography collects light radiation, and radar mapping collects microwave radiation. The advantage in using radar mapping with Venus is that microwave radiation is in a position to undergo the planet’s thick clouds, whereas the sunshine necessary for photography is unable to try to to so.
The first radar mappings of the Venusian surface via spacecraft came in 1978 when the Pioneer Venus spacecraft began orbiting the earth . What the resulting maps revealed was a surface consisting primarily of plains formed by ancient lava flows, with only two highland regions, Ishtar Terra and Aphrodite Terra.
In 1990, the Magellan spacecraft began orbiting Venus. additionally to performing radar mapping almost like that of Pioneer Venus, Magellan also undertook a more advanced radar imaging that gathered much finer details. What Magellan found was approximately 1000 impact craters. Interestingly, none of the craters seen were but 2 km in diameter. This suggest that any meteroid sufficiently small to make a crater having a diameter but 2 km would have broken apart and burned up during its passage through the dense Venusian atmosphere.
An additional observation regarding the dimensions of the impact craters helped to shed light on the age of the planet’s surface. Not only were small impact craters absent on the planet’s surface, but also those of huge diameter. What this tells us is that the surface has been formed since the amount of heavy bombardment, a span of three .8 to 4.5 billion years ago when an outsized number of impact craters were formed on the inner planets. Thus, geologically speaking, the Veunsian surface is comparatively young.
Finally, the surface’s most prominent features are those produced by the planet’s volcanic activity. As noted above, the primary of those features is that the enormous plains caused by ancient lava flows. Covering over 80% of the Venusian surface, these plains are the foremost dominant feature. The second prominent feature is that the surface’s volcanic structures, which are numerous and varied. additionally to shield volcanoes almost like those found on Earth (e.g., Mauna Loa), many “pancake” volcanoes are observed on Venus. These volcanoes, unlike any on Earth, are believed to possess formed their distinctive flat, disc-like shape thanks to an eruption of all of the volcano’s lava directly through one vent. After such an eruption, the lava then spreads outwardly during a uniform, circular manner.
As with the opposite terrestrial planets, Venus’ interior is actually composed of three layers: a crust, a mantle, and a core. However, what’s intriguing about Venus’ interior (as against that of Mercury or Mars) is how alike it’s to the Earth’s interior. While it’s impossible to check truth similarity of the 2 planets’ interiors, it’s reasonable to draw such conclusions supported the characteristics the 2 planets are known to share. Hence, it’s believed that Venus’ crust is 50 km thick, its mantle 3,000 km thick, and therefore the core features a diameter of 6,000 km.
An unanswered question about the Venusian interior is whether or not or not the planet’s core is liquid or solid. On one hand, because Venus and Earth are so alike, it’s reasonable to conclude that since Earth features a liquid core, Venus does also .
On the opposite hand, there’s also evidence to suggest the Venusian core is solid. This evidence stems from the planet’s lacking a considerable magnetic flux . Simply put, planetary magnetic fields are a results of the transfer of warmth from inside a planet to its surface. A necessary component of this transfer may be a liquid core. The argument is since Venus lacks a considerable magnetic flux , it cannot possess a liquid core.
Orbit & Rotation
The most notable aspect of Venus’ orbit is its uniformity of distance from the Sun. Indeed, with an eccentricity of only .00678, Venus’ orbit is definitely the foremost circular of all the planets. Moreover, this small eccentricity means the difference between Venus’ perihelion (1.07 x 108 km) and its aphelion (1.09 x 108 km) may be a mere 1.46 x 106 km.
Like information regarding Venus’ surface, little data about its rotation might be obtained until the radar imaging missions of the last half of the twentieth-century. Surprisingly, what these missions revealed was just how unique Venus’ rotation is.
Whereas the quality rotation for a planet about its axis is counterclockwise (as viewed from the “top” of the orbital plane), Venus’ rotation is retrograde or clockwise. the rationale for this is often presently unknown, but there are two popular theories. the primary points to the 3:2 spin-orbit resonance of Venus with the world . To some, this is often highly suggestive that over billions of years the Earth’s gravity has altered Venus’ rotation to its present state. Some scientists, however, doubt that the Earth’s gravity has been great enough to vary Venus in such a fundamental way. Instead, they need looked to the first system when the planets were being formed to supply an evidence . They theorize that Venus’ original rotation was almost like that of the opposite planets’, yet it had been altered to its current orientation when an outsized planetesimal struck the young planet with great force, essentially knocking the earth the wrong way up .
A second unexpected discovery regarding Venus’ rotation is its speed. Taking approximately 243 Earth days to finish one rotation, each day on Venus is longer than on the other planet. This alone is noteworthy. what’s even more striking, though, is when Venus’ day is compared to its year. At roughly 224 earth days, Venus’ year is nearly 19 earth days but one Venusian day. Again, no other planet shares such a property. The leading theory for this phenomenon is that which is employed to elucidate the planet’s retrograde rotation.